To pic copulatory scratches and the men genital morphology of each and every types, i accessed female and male genitalia thanks to dissections. For this reason, we tested more queens (both virgin and you will physogastric mated ones) and extra newly came up people of each and every types, adopting the same testing criteria in earlier times described (comprehend the earlier sections). We following dissected per specimens’ metasoma to access new vaginal region of women and men. Just after dissection, we instantaneously photographed these types of formations to be sure the stability away from membranous architecture, especially in women. Dissections then followed the process previously demonstrated into the Genital useful morphology, hypothesized plugging steps and you may mating positions. Ultimately, we utilized good Leica DM a lot of stereomicroscope, along with an attracting tube to prepare brand new design of the mating couples (?20 magnification, Genital practical morphology, hypothesized plugging steps and mating positions) plus the genital useful morphology (?80 magnification, Vaginal functional morphology, hypothesized plugging tips and you will mating ranking). We vectorized and addressed these layouts having fun with a photograph editor software. I plus put good Leica DFC420 cam connected to a good Leica M205A stereomicroscope to manufacture higher-solution pictures of women and boys genitalia (?1.0 lens and you may ?50 magnification, Point dos.4). Basic, we grabbed multifocus colour photo, following we piled her or him in a single photo using the Leica application room version step three.4.step 1. We constant this technique for every genitalia (female and male) out of all the sampled stingless bee kinds, but that, Yards. melapling restrictions.
No melanized patches have been seen into the inspected unmated virgin queens. In every varieties, physogastric queens exhibited melanized spots on their membranous purse ( Table 1), apart from Yards. fasciculata ( Profile 1). The latest membranous pockets were truly the only part having copulatory marks. Inside the for each and every mated queen, spots was in fact usually matched, complimentary this new inferred status of pair of manhood valves inside the male vaginal pill. Spots was basically located on for every single wallet, and symmetrically arranged ( Figure 1). In addition, melanized spots looked like long lasting, due to the fact we observed her or him inside the mated queens of different many years, centered on our very own side wear classification ( Second Shape S3 ).
Women genital chamber, pattern from copulatory scratches, and ventral look at men vaginal capsules of F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Yards. seminigra, and you may M. fasciculata. From remaining in order to correct, photographs inform you the newest vaginal chamber regarding virgin queens, the vaginal chamber out-of mated queens, and also the melanized patches entirely on queens, which happen to be conveyed by the white arrows throughout the 3rd line of pictures. Singly mated queens let you know one collection of melanized spots, shown for F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Yards. flavolineata, and you may M. seminigra; otherwise an extended-term attached plug, just included in Yards. fasciculata. Remated Yards. seminigra queens, shown by black asterisk, let you know numerous pairs out-of melanized spots and central spots. Throughout the right hand set of photos, male pills is demonstrated because triggered mating plugs simply for Melipona variety, showing rotated cock valves. I together with let you know an inactivated mating plug to have Meters. fasciculata, while the shown by the white asterisk. Black colored taverns show a size from 0.5 mm. So it shape includes pictures out of 6 out-of the seven read varieties (find Topic and methods).
Lady genital chamber, trend out of copulatory scratching, and you can ventral look at male vaginal drugs out of F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Meters. seminigra, and you will Meters. visit this link fasciculata. Out-of leftover so you’re able to correct, pictures let you know the fresh vaginal chamber off virgin queens, the new genital chamber away from mated queens, and melanized spots entirely on queens, being conveyed because of the white arrows on the 3rd column of images. Singly mated queens inform you an individual pair of melanized patches, found to have F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Meters. flavolineata, and you can Yards. seminigra; otherwise a long-identity connected connect, only included in M. fasciculata. Remated Meters. seminigra queens, indicated because of the black asterisk, tell you several sets of melanized patches and you can main spots. From the right-hand selection of photo, male medicine are showed since the triggered mating plugs simply for Melipona kinds, indicating turned manhood regulators. I in addition to reveal an enthusiastic inactivated mating plug having Meters. fasciculata, just like the expressed from the white asterisk. Black taverns depict a measure out of 0.5 mm. So it shape has photo of six of our seven learnt species (pick Situation and techniques).